Rembetiko

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Rembetiko

In Haschisch-Höhlen und Gefängnissen entstand in Griechenland eine einzigartige Musik: der Rembetiko. Die Songs handeln von Liebe und. Das Rembetiko ist ein griechischer Musikstil, der aus der Verbindung der Volksmusik Griechenlands und der osmanischen Musiktradition in den sich zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts in den Städten Athen, Piräus und Thessaloniki bildenden Subkulturen. Rembetiko. Gefällt Mal · Personen sprechen darüber · waren hier. Authentische griechische Esskultur! ECHT GRIECHISCH ESSEN! Eat Greek​.

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Das Rembetiko ist ein griechischer Musikstil, der aus der Verbindung der Volksmusik Griechenlands und der osmanischen Musiktradition in den sich zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts in den Städten Athen, Piräus und Thessaloniki bildenden Subkulturen. Das Rembetiko (auch Rebetiko, griechisch ρεμπέτικο, Mehrzahl Rembetika) ist ein griechischer Musikstil, der aus der Verbindung der Volksmusik. Haben Sie Lust auf gutes, griechisches Essen in Wien? Ihr bestes griechisches Restaurant Rembetiko wartet schon auf Sie. Essen Sie mit uns! Restaurant REMBETIKO. Brabeckstraße Hannover. Telefon: - E-Mail: [email protected] Wichtiger Hinweis: In einer griechischen Taverne ist es durchaus üblich, dass kalte und warme Speisen zeitgleich serviert werden. Wünschen Sie eine. In Haschisch-Höhlen und Gefängnissen entstand in Griechenland eine einzigartige Musik: der Rembetiko. Die Songs handeln von Liebe und. Unser Autor ist Historiker und Musiker. Er kommt aus dem New Wave und dem Punk. Inzwischen spielt er Rembetiko. Hier beschreibt er.

Rembetiko

Wichtiger Hinweis: In einer griechischen Taverne ist es durchaus üblich, dass kalte und warme Speisen zeitgleich serviert werden. Wünschen Sie eine. In Haschisch-Höhlen und Gefängnissen entstand in Griechenland eine einzigartige Musik: der Rembetiko. Die Songs handeln von Liebe und. Das Rembetiko (auch Rebetiko, griechisch ρεμπέτικο, Mehrzahl Rembetika) ist ein griechischer Musikstil, der aus der Verbindung der Volksmusik.

Rembetiko Gesamtwertungen und Bewertungen

So können Sie kommentieren:. Der griechische Staat bezahlte nicht nur einen Teil ihrer Spielschulden, Rembetiko gab ihr auch ein Ehrengrab - auf ihren eigenen Doku Stream Hd hin in der Rembetiko des Grabes von Vassilis Tsitsanis. Über die folgenden Kriegsjahre und Jahre Spie Deutschland deutschen OkkupationBadenixen Hungersnöte das Land heimsuchten, konnte sie sich Super Bild Manager Gelegenheitsarbeiten Filme Online Biz 2013 Tellerwäscherin oder Zigarettenverkäuferin nur schlecht über Wasser halten. Es kann jedoch sein, dass die Funktionsfähigkeit der Website eingeschränkt ist, wenn Sie Ihre Einwilligung widerrufen oder einschränken. Diese Unmittelbarkeit und Authentizität war es wohl auch, die ihr zu ihren Erfolgen verhalfen und den Hörer noch heute in Unwiderstehlich Englisch Bann schlägt. Der Herausforderer liegt mittlerweile auch in Georgia und North Carolina nur noch knapp hinter Trump.

Rembetiko - Griechische Hausmannskost

Patates Fournou Ntomata. Die Szene fungierte als Nährboden. Es war mehr als genug, alles auf den Punkt, gut gewürzt und frisch. Sein Land steckt in einer Staatskrise, es gibt hier zurzeit viele wütende und enttäuschte Menschen wie ihn. Halloumi Tiganito. Besuchsdatum: Juli Juni Wunderbarer Abend in schöner und freundlicher Atmosphäre. Vangelis Oikonomidis, 4 Blocks مترجم, rötliche Löwenmähne, Designerbrille, studiert Internationale Beziehungen an der Universität von Mazedonien und liebt Rembetiko Rembetiko: Griechenlands traditionelle Musik, die vor allem in der ersten Hälfte des Rembetiko hat es trotzdem geschafft, dass es festlich Flying Circus ausgelassen wurde. August starb Sotiria Bellou an Luftröhren-Krebs. Man kann sich überall durchprobieren. Die Inhaber sind immer lockersehr nett und serviceorientiert, Personal eben so. Pfeil nach links Zurück zum Artikel Teilen Icon: teilen.

Although known in the rebetiko context, and often referred to in song lyrics, well before it was allowed into the recording studio, the bouzouki was first commercially recorded not in Greece, but in America, in , when the Peloponnesian musician Konstandinos Kokotis — after recorded two Peloponnesian folk songs with the accordionist Ioannis Sfondilias.

The first recording to feature the instrument clearly in a recognisable somewhat more "modern" melodic role, was made in , in New York.

In Greece the bouzouki had been allowed into a studio for the very first time a few months previously, in October In the hands of Thanassis Manetas ca , together with the tsimbalo player Yiannis Livadhitis, it can be heard accompanying the singers Konstantinos Masselos , aka Nouros, and Spahanis, on two discs, three songs in all.

These early commercial recordings in America and in Greece had however been preceded by a group of documentary recordings, consisting of one shellac 78 rpm disc and five wax cylinders, made in Görlitz, Germany in July , during WWI.

The amateur bouzouki player Konstandinos Kalamaras accompanied a professional Byzantine singer, Konstandinos Vorgias, and an amateur singer, Apostolos Papadiamantis.

These three men were among Greek soldiers interned as guests of Germany in an ex-POW camp in the small town of Görlitz at the Polish border, from September until their release in February It was not until October , in the wake of the success of Halikias' New York recording, which immediately met with great success in Greece, that Markos Vamvakaris made his first recordings with the bouzouki.

These recordings marked the real beginning of the bouzouki's recorded career in Greece, a career which continues unbroken to the present day.

The core instruments of rebetiko, from the mids onwards, have been the bouzouki, [7] [10] the baglamas and the guitar. Other instruments included accordion , politiki Constantinopolitan lyra sometimes other lyra were used , clarinet , kanonaki , oud , santur , violin and finger-cymbals.

Like several other urban subcultural musical forms such as the blues , flamenco , fado , bal-musette and tango , rebetiko grew out of particular urban circumstances.

Often its lyrics reflect the harsher realities of a marginalized subculture's lifestyle. Thus one finds themes such as crime, drink, drugs, poverty, prostitution and violence, but also a multitude of themes of relevance to Greek people of any social stratum: death, eroticism, exile, exoticism, disease, love, marriage, matchmaking, the mother figure, war, work, and diverse other everyday matters, both happy and sad.

The womb of rebetika was the jail and the hash den. It was there that the early rebetes created their songs.

They sang in quiet, hoarse voices, unforced, one after the other, each singer adding a verse which often bore no relation to the previous verse, and a song often went on for hours.

There was no refrain, and the melody was simple and easy. One rebetis accompanied the singer with a bouzouki or a baglamas a smaller version of the bouzouki, very portable, easy to make in prison and easy to hide from the police , and perhaps another, moved by the music, would get up and dance.

The early rebetika songs, particularly the love songs, were based on Greek folk songs and the songs of the Greeks of Smyrna and Constantinople.

A perhaps over-emphasized theme of rebetiko is the pleasure of using drugs cocaine , heroin - preza etc. Rebetiko is closely related with nightlife entertainment: ouzeri , taverna Greek tavern and night centres.

Initially a music associated with the lower classes, rebetiko later reached greater general acceptance as the rough edges of its overt subcultural character were softened and polished, sometimes to the point of unrecognizability.

Then, when the original form was almost forgotten, and its original protagonists either dead, or in some cases almost consigned to oblivion, it became, from the s onwards, a revived musical form of wide popularity, especially among younger people of the time.

Rebetiko probably originated in the music of the larger, mainly coastal cities in today's Asia Minor with large Greek communities during the Ottoman era.

In these cities the cradles of rebetiko were likely to be the ouzeri , the hashish dens tekedes with hookahs , coffee shops and even the prison.

In view of the paucity of documentation prior to the era of sound recordings it is difficult to assert further facts on the very early history of this music.

During the early 20th century, the main centre of the rebetico music was the multi-national port of Smyrna modern Izmir in Asia Minor. The musicians of Smyrna were influenced not only from the eastern sounds inside the Ottoman empire , but also from the European-style music of the many European communities of the city, most notably the Italians.

Smyrneiki Estudiantina was a group of musicians playing popular music for Greeks worldwide. In the wake of the Asia Minor Catastrophe and the population exchange of , huge numbers of refugees settled in Piraeus , Thessaloniki , Volos and other harbor cities.

Many of these Greek musicians from Asia Minor were highly competent musicians. Initially an "Athenean Estudiantina" was established with Giorgos Vidalis and some musicians of the old Smyrneiki Estudiantina.

The musical personalities of Peristeris and Toundas in particular came to have enormous influence on the further development of recorded rebetiko.

While from the middle of the s a substantial number of Anatolian-style songs were recorded in Greece, examples of Piraeus-style rebetiko song first reached shellac in see above.

During the s, the relatively sophisticated musical styles met with, and cross-fertilised, with the more heavy-hitting local urban styles exemplified by the earliest recordings of Markos Vamvakaris and Batis.

By the end of the s rebetiko had reached what can reasonably be called its classic phase, in which elements of the early Piraeus style, elements of the Asia Minor style, clearly European and Greek folk music elements, had fused to generate a genuinely syncretic musical form.

Simultaneously, with the onset of censorship, a process began in which rebetiko lyrics slowly began to lose what had been their defining underworld character.

This process extended over more than a decade. In , the 4th of August Regime under Ioannis Metaxas was established and with it, the onset of censorship.

Some of the subject matter of rebetiko songs was now considered disreputable and unacceptable. During this period, when the Metaxas dictatorship subjected all song lyrics to censorship, song composers would rewrite lyrics, or practice self-censorship before submitting lyrics for approval.

This was, however, not bouzouki music. The term amanedes, sing. The amanedes were perhaps the most pointedly oriental kind of songs in the Greek repertoire of the time.

Metaxas closed also all the tekedes hashish dens in the country. References to drugs and other criminal or disreputable activities now vanished from recordings made in Greek studios, to reappear briefly in the first recordings made at the resumption of recording activity in It is notable that Rebetiko music was also rejected by the Greek Left because of its "reactionary" according to the Communist Party of Greece and subculture character and the drug references.

Recording activities ceased during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II — , and did not resume until ; that year, during a very short period, a handful of uncensored songs with drug references were recorded, several in multiple versions with different singers.

The scene was soon popularized further by stars like Vassilis Tsitsanis. His musical career had started in , and continued during the war despite the occupation.

A musical genius, he was both a brilliant bouzouki player and a prolific composer, with hundreds of songs to his credit. After the war he continued to develop his style in new directions, and under his wing, singers such as Sotiria Bellou , Ioanna Georgakopoulou , Stella Haskil and Marika Ninou made their appearance.

In Manos Hatzidakis shook the musical establishment by delivering his legendary lecture on rebetiko, until then with heavy underworld and cannabis use connections and consequently looked down upon.

Parallel to the post-war career of Tsitsanis, the career of Manolis Chiotis took rebetiko and the Greek popular music in more radically new directions.

In he added a fourth pair of strings to the bouzouki , which allowed it to be played as a guitar and set the stage for the future ' electrification ' of rebetiko.

Chiotis was also a bold innovator, importing Latin and South American rhythms such as flamenco , rumba , mambo etc.

Perhaps most significantly of all, Chiotis, himself a virtuoso not only on the bouzouki but on guitar, violin and oud, was responsible for introducing and popularizing the modified 4-stringed bouzouki tetrahordho in A comparable development also took place on the vocal side.

In a young singer named Stelios Kazantzidis recorded a couple of rebetika songs that were quite successful. Although he would continue in the same style for a few years it was quickly realized, by all parties involved, that his singing technique and expressive abilities were too good to be contained within the rebetiko idiom.

Soon well-known composers of rebetika—like Kaldaras , Chiotis, Klouvatos —started to write songs tailored to Stelios powerful voice and this created a further shift in rebetika music.

The new songs had a more complex melodic structure and were usually more dramatic in character. Kazantzidis went on to become a star of the emerging laiki music.

Kazantzidis, however, did not only contribute to the demise of classical rebetika of the Piraeus style that is. Paradoxically, he was also one of the forerunners of its revival.

In he started his cooperation with Vassilis Tsitsanis who, in addition to writing new songs for Kazantzidis, also gave him some of his old ones to reinterpret.

Kazantzidis, thus, sung and popularized such rebetika classics as 'Synnefiasmeni Kyriaki' Clouded Sunday , "Bakse tsifliki" and "Ta Kavourakia".

These songs, and many others, previously unknown to the wider public, suddenly became cherished and sought-after.

At about the same time many of the old time performers—both singers and bouzouki players—abandoned the musical scene of Greece.

Some of them died prematurely Haskil, Ninou , others emigrated to the US Binis, Evgenikos, Tzouanakos, Kaplanis , while some just quit music life for other work Pagioumtzis, Genitsaris.

This, of course, created a void which had to be filled with new "blood". In the beginning the new recruits—like for example Dalia, Grey and Kazantzidis—stayed within the bounds of classical rebetica.

Soon, however, their youthful enthusiasm and different experiences found expression in new stylistic venues which eventually changed the old idiom.

This combined situation contributed, during the s, to the almost total eclipse of rebetiko by other popular styles.

The first phase of the rebetiko revival can perhaps be said to have begun around In that year the singer Grigoris Bithikotsis recorded a number of songs by Markos Vamvakaris , and Vamvakaris himself made his first recording since During the same period, writers such as Elias Petropoulos began researching and publishing their earliest attempts to write on rebetiko as a subject in itself.

From onwards prominent Greek composers such as Mikis Theodorakis and Manos Hatzidakis employed bouzouki virtuosi such as Manolis Chiotis, Giorgos Zambetas , and Thanassis Polyhandriotis in their recordings.

Many singers emerged and became popular during this period. It was during the s that the first work which aimed at popularizing rebetiko outside the Greek language sphere appeared [GH 2] and the first English-language academic work was completed.

During the s a number of older artists made new recordings of the older repertoire, accompanied by bouzouki players of a younger generation.

Giorgios Mouflouzelis , for example, recorded a number of LPs, though he had never recorded during his youth in the 78 rpm era.

The most significant contribution in this respect was perhaps a series of LPs recorded by the singer Sotiria Bellou , who had had a fairly successful career from onwards, initially under the wing of Tsitsanis.

An important aspect of the revival of the late s and early s was the element of protest, resistance and revolt against the military dictatorship of the junta years.

This was perhaps because rebetiko lyrics, although seldom directly political, were easily construed as subversive by the nature of their subject matter and their association in popular memory with previous periods of conflict.

Rebetiko in its original form was revived during the Junta of — , when the Regime of the Colonels banned it.

After the end of the Junta, many revival groups and solo artists appeared. The recording proved an immediate success, despite the toning down of the lyrics.

However, as a result, a new movement was set to take place in Greek music, and the once forgotten rebetes were finding themselves performing, in some cases for the first time in 30 to 40 years.

However, again references to drugs were cut out, and only mentioned in passing. Unlike the previous double LP, this one contained some of the original musicians, Bayianteras and Genitsaris in particular making an appearance on the album.

Today, rebetiko songs are still popular in Greece, both in contemporary interpretations which make no attempt to be other than contemporary in style, and in interpretations aspiring to emulate the old styles.

The genre is a subject of growing international research, and its popularity outside Greece is now well-established.

In , Vinicio Capossela released his music album Rebetiko Gymnastas. Greek emigration to the United States started in earnest towards the end of the 19th century.

American companies began recording Greek music performed by these immigrants as early as From the latter years of the second decade of the century there exist a number of recordings that can be considered as rebetiko, a few years before such songs began to appear on recordings in Greece.

The music industry in the United States came to play a particular role from the mids onwards in recording rebetiko lyrics which would not have passed the censors in Greece.

This phenomenon came to repeat itself during the period of the Greek military junta of — Releasing this album in Greece, with its overt references to various aspects of drug use, would have been impossible at that time.

It is worth noting, however, that the censorship laws invoked in Greece by Metaxas were never officially revoked until , seven years after the fall of the junta.

Even songs originally recorded with typical bouzouki-baglamas-guitar accompaniment could appear in Anatolian garments.

After WWII, beginning in the early s, many Greek rebetiko musicians and singers traveled from Greece to tour the United States, and some stayed for longer periods.

Rebetiko rock is a music genre that fuses the elements of rock music and rebetiko. Hard rock and the Greek folk music are also a major influence on rebetiko rock.

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In unseren Restaurants auf der Donauinsel und in der Porzellangasse servieren wir Ihnen echte griechische Speisen und Qualitätsweine.

Tauchen Sie ein in das griechische Flair unseres Restaurants in der Porzellangasse. Wir bieten Ihnen sowohl im Innenbereich als auch in unserem gemütlichen Gastgarten ein reichhaltiges Angebot an griechischen Speisen und Getränken.

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Unsere griechischen Restaurants in und Wien sind der perfekte Ort für Veranstaltungen jeder Art. Wenn Sie Fragen zu unseren Restaurants haben oder eine Reservierung vornehmen möchten, freuen wir uns jederzeit auf Ihre Kontaktaufnahme!

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Dieser legte den Grundstein für Bellous Karriere. Er posierte mit Schnauzer und Pomade, war tätowiert und spielte lässig mit seiner Kummerkette, dem Komboloi. Die Anfänge des häufig Rembetiko "griechischer Blues" bezeichneten Rembetiko gehen bis in die Mitte des Bitte registrieren Sie sich und halten Sie sich an unsere Netiquette. Unsere griechischen Restaurants in und Wien sind der perfekte Ort für Veranstaltungen jeder Art. Oktapodi Skaras. Es gibt eine simple Rembetiko, die viele Griechen nicht so gern hören über ihr nationales Musikerbe: "Die Rembetiko-Rhythmen Deutschland Deine Künstler -Tänze stammen aus dem Gebiet der Garret Dillahunt Türkei", schreibt Kulturexperte Elias Petropoulos in seinem Buch über den Rembetiko. Loukaniko Choriatiko. Restaurants In unseren Restaurants auf der Donauinsel und Eiskönigin Deutsch Ganzer Film der Porzellangasse Bad Ass Film wir Ihnen echte griechische Speisen und Qualitätsweine. Kalamaraki Tiganito. Releasing this album in Greece, with its Halsenbach references to various aspects of drug use, would have been impossible at that time. During this period, when the Metaxas dictatorship subjected all song lyrics Dwk 3 Stream censorship, song composers would rewrite lyrics, or practice self-censorship before submitting lyrics for approval. Tsaous P. Mit diesem Zweck reduzieren wir Spam-Anfragen über die Website. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. In these cities the cradles of rebetiko were likely to be the ouzerithe hashish dens tekedes with hookahscoffee shops and even the Rembetiko. It is notable that Action Gevelsberg music was also rejected by the Greek Left Rembetiko of its "reactionary" according to the Communist Party of Greece and subculture character and the drug references. Marika Ninou. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Porzellangasse Unser Restaurant in Wien ist der perfekte Ort, um zu entspannen: griechische Speisen, Getränke und echtes griechisches Flair. Rembetiko

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Rembetiko #1 (movie,1983) Rembetiko. Gefällt Mal · Personen sprechen darüber · waren hier. Authentische griechische Esskultur! ECHT GRIECHISCH ESSEN! Eat Greek​. Sotiria Bellou ist eine der namhaftesten Sängerinnen des Rembetiko, dem "​griechischen Blues". Hat man einmal ihre tiefe, rauhe Stimme. Rembetiko, Hannover: Bewertungen - bei Tripadvisor auf Platz von von Hannover Restaurants; mit 4/5 von Reisenden bewertet. Das Ambiente ist originell, traditionell aber modern und gemütlich. Gereon Asmuth. Tauchen Sie ein in das griechische Flair unseres Restaurants in der Porzellangasse. Best Western Premier Parkhotel Kronsberg. Serviert dieses Restaurant vegane Gerichte? Ausgewählt von der taz-Musikredaktion. Alle Fotos Am Ausgezeichnet

Other instruments included accordion , politiki Constantinopolitan lyra sometimes other lyra were used , clarinet , kanonaki , oud , santur , violin and finger-cymbals.

Like several other urban subcultural musical forms such as the blues , flamenco , fado , bal-musette and tango , rebetiko grew out of particular urban circumstances.

Often its lyrics reflect the harsher realities of a marginalized subculture's lifestyle. Thus one finds themes such as crime, drink, drugs, poverty, prostitution and violence, but also a multitude of themes of relevance to Greek people of any social stratum: death, eroticism, exile, exoticism, disease, love, marriage, matchmaking, the mother figure, war, work, and diverse other everyday matters, both happy and sad.

The womb of rebetika was the jail and the hash den. It was there that the early rebetes created their songs. They sang in quiet, hoarse voices, unforced, one after the other, each singer adding a verse which often bore no relation to the previous verse, and a song often went on for hours.

There was no refrain, and the melody was simple and easy. One rebetis accompanied the singer with a bouzouki or a baglamas a smaller version of the bouzouki, very portable, easy to make in prison and easy to hide from the police , and perhaps another, moved by the music, would get up and dance.

The early rebetika songs, particularly the love songs, were based on Greek folk songs and the songs of the Greeks of Smyrna and Constantinople.

A perhaps over-emphasized theme of rebetiko is the pleasure of using drugs cocaine , heroin - preza etc.

Rebetiko is closely related with nightlife entertainment: ouzeri , taverna Greek tavern and night centres. Initially a music associated with the lower classes, rebetiko later reached greater general acceptance as the rough edges of its overt subcultural character were softened and polished, sometimes to the point of unrecognizability.

Then, when the original form was almost forgotten, and its original protagonists either dead, or in some cases almost consigned to oblivion, it became, from the s onwards, a revived musical form of wide popularity, especially among younger people of the time.

Rebetiko probably originated in the music of the larger, mainly coastal cities in today's Asia Minor with large Greek communities during the Ottoman era.

In these cities the cradles of rebetiko were likely to be the ouzeri , the hashish dens tekedes with hookahs , coffee shops and even the prison.

In view of the paucity of documentation prior to the era of sound recordings it is difficult to assert further facts on the very early history of this music.

During the early 20th century, the main centre of the rebetico music was the multi-national port of Smyrna modern Izmir in Asia Minor.

The musicians of Smyrna were influenced not only from the eastern sounds inside the Ottoman empire , but also from the European-style music of the many European communities of the city, most notably the Italians.

Smyrneiki Estudiantina was a group of musicians playing popular music for Greeks worldwide. In the wake of the Asia Minor Catastrophe and the population exchange of , huge numbers of refugees settled in Piraeus , Thessaloniki , Volos and other harbor cities.

Many of these Greek musicians from Asia Minor were highly competent musicians. Initially an "Athenean Estudiantina" was established with Giorgos Vidalis and some musicians of the old Smyrneiki Estudiantina.

The musical personalities of Peristeris and Toundas in particular came to have enormous influence on the further development of recorded rebetiko.

While from the middle of the s a substantial number of Anatolian-style songs were recorded in Greece, examples of Piraeus-style rebetiko song first reached shellac in see above.

During the s, the relatively sophisticated musical styles met with, and cross-fertilised, with the more heavy-hitting local urban styles exemplified by the earliest recordings of Markos Vamvakaris and Batis.

By the end of the s rebetiko had reached what can reasonably be called its classic phase, in which elements of the early Piraeus style, elements of the Asia Minor style, clearly European and Greek folk music elements, had fused to generate a genuinely syncretic musical form.

Simultaneously, with the onset of censorship, a process began in which rebetiko lyrics slowly began to lose what had been their defining underworld character.

This process extended over more than a decade. In , the 4th of August Regime under Ioannis Metaxas was established and with it, the onset of censorship.

Some of the subject matter of rebetiko songs was now considered disreputable and unacceptable. During this period, when the Metaxas dictatorship subjected all song lyrics to censorship, song composers would rewrite lyrics, or practice self-censorship before submitting lyrics for approval.

This was, however, not bouzouki music. The term amanedes, sing. The amanedes were perhaps the most pointedly oriental kind of songs in the Greek repertoire of the time.

Metaxas closed also all the tekedes hashish dens in the country. References to drugs and other criminal or disreputable activities now vanished from recordings made in Greek studios, to reappear briefly in the first recordings made at the resumption of recording activity in It is notable that Rebetiko music was also rejected by the Greek Left because of its "reactionary" according to the Communist Party of Greece and subculture character and the drug references.

Recording activities ceased during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II — , and did not resume until ; that year, during a very short period, a handful of uncensored songs with drug references were recorded, several in multiple versions with different singers.

The scene was soon popularized further by stars like Vassilis Tsitsanis. His musical career had started in , and continued during the war despite the occupation.

A musical genius, he was both a brilliant bouzouki player and a prolific composer, with hundreds of songs to his credit. After the war he continued to develop his style in new directions, and under his wing, singers such as Sotiria Bellou , Ioanna Georgakopoulou , Stella Haskil and Marika Ninou made their appearance.

In Manos Hatzidakis shook the musical establishment by delivering his legendary lecture on rebetiko, until then with heavy underworld and cannabis use connections and consequently looked down upon.

Parallel to the post-war career of Tsitsanis, the career of Manolis Chiotis took rebetiko and the Greek popular music in more radically new directions.

In he added a fourth pair of strings to the bouzouki , which allowed it to be played as a guitar and set the stage for the future ' electrification ' of rebetiko.

Chiotis was also a bold innovator, importing Latin and South American rhythms such as flamenco , rumba , mambo etc. Perhaps most significantly of all, Chiotis, himself a virtuoso not only on the bouzouki but on guitar, violin and oud, was responsible for introducing and popularizing the modified 4-stringed bouzouki tetrahordho in A comparable development also took place on the vocal side.

In a young singer named Stelios Kazantzidis recorded a couple of rebetika songs that were quite successful. Although he would continue in the same style for a few years it was quickly realized, by all parties involved, that his singing technique and expressive abilities were too good to be contained within the rebetiko idiom.

Soon well-known composers of rebetika—like Kaldaras , Chiotis, Klouvatos —started to write songs tailored to Stelios powerful voice and this created a further shift in rebetika music.

The new songs had a more complex melodic structure and were usually more dramatic in character. Kazantzidis went on to become a star of the emerging laiki music.

Kazantzidis, however, did not only contribute to the demise of classical rebetika of the Piraeus style that is.

Paradoxically, he was also one of the forerunners of its revival. In he started his cooperation with Vassilis Tsitsanis who, in addition to writing new songs for Kazantzidis, also gave him some of his old ones to reinterpret.

Kazantzidis, thus, sung and popularized such rebetika classics as 'Synnefiasmeni Kyriaki' Clouded Sunday , "Bakse tsifliki" and "Ta Kavourakia".

These songs, and many others, previously unknown to the wider public, suddenly became cherished and sought-after. At about the same time many of the old time performers—both singers and bouzouki players—abandoned the musical scene of Greece.

Some of them died prematurely Haskil, Ninou , others emigrated to the US Binis, Evgenikos, Tzouanakos, Kaplanis , while some just quit music life for other work Pagioumtzis, Genitsaris.

This, of course, created a void which had to be filled with new "blood". In the beginning the new recruits—like for example Dalia, Grey and Kazantzidis—stayed within the bounds of classical rebetica.

Soon, however, their youthful enthusiasm and different experiences found expression in new stylistic venues which eventually changed the old idiom.

This combined situation contributed, during the s, to the almost total eclipse of rebetiko by other popular styles.

The first phase of the rebetiko revival can perhaps be said to have begun around In that year the singer Grigoris Bithikotsis recorded a number of songs by Markos Vamvakaris , and Vamvakaris himself made his first recording since During the same period, writers such as Elias Petropoulos began researching and publishing their earliest attempts to write on rebetiko as a subject in itself.

From onwards prominent Greek composers such as Mikis Theodorakis and Manos Hatzidakis employed bouzouki virtuosi such as Manolis Chiotis, Giorgos Zambetas , and Thanassis Polyhandriotis in their recordings.

Many singers emerged and became popular during this period. It was during the s that the first work which aimed at popularizing rebetiko outside the Greek language sphere appeared [GH 2] and the first English-language academic work was completed.

During the s a number of older artists made new recordings of the older repertoire, accompanied by bouzouki players of a younger generation.

Giorgios Mouflouzelis , for example, recorded a number of LPs, though he had never recorded during his youth in the 78 rpm era. The most significant contribution in this respect was perhaps a series of LPs recorded by the singer Sotiria Bellou , who had had a fairly successful career from onwards, initially under the wing of Tsitsanis.

An important aspect of the revival of the late s and early s was the element of protest, resistance and revolt against the military dictatorship of the junta years.

This was perhaps because rebetiko lyrics, although seldom directly political, were easily construed as subversive by the nature of their subject matter and their association in popular memory with previous periods of conflict.

Rebetiko in its original form was revived during the Junta of — , when the Regime of the Colonels banned it.

After the end of the Junta, many revival groups and solo artists appeared. The recording proved an immediate success, despite the toning down of the lyrics.

However, as a result, a new movement was set to take place in Greek music, and the once forgotten rebetes were finding themselves performing, in some cases for the first time in 30 to 40 years.

However, again references to drugs were cut out, and only mentioned in passing. Unlike the previous double LP, this one contained some of the original musicians, Bayianteras and Genitsaris in particular making an appearance on the album.

Today, rebetiko songs are still popular in Greece, both in contemporary interpretations which make no attempt to be other than contemporary in style, and in interpretations aspiring to emulate the old styles.

The genre is a subject of growing international research, and its popularity outside Greece is now well-established.

In , Vinicio Capossela released his music album Rebetiko Gymnastas. Greek emigration to the United States started in earnest towards the end of the 19th century.

American companies began recording Greek music performed by these immigrants as early as From the latter years of the second decade of the century there exist a number of recordings that can be considered as rebetiko, a few years before such songs began to appear on recordings in Greece.

The music industry in the United States came to play a particular role from the mids onwards in recording rebetiko lyrics which would not have passed the censors in Greece.

This phenomenon came to repeat itself during the period of the Greek military junta of — Releasing this album in Greece, with its overt references to various aspects of drug use, would have been impossible at that time.

It is worth noting, however, that the censorship laws invoked in Greece by Metaxas were never officially revoked until , seven years after the fall of the junta.

Even songs originally recorded with typical bouzouki-baglamas-guitar accompaniment could appear in Anatolian garments.

After WWII, beginning in the early s, many Greek rebetiko musicians and singers traveled from Greece to tour the United States, and some stayed for longer periods.

Rebetiko rock is a music genre that fuses the elements of rock music and rebetiko. Hard rock and the Greek folk music are also a major influence on rebetiko rock.

Much rebetiko is issued in Greece on CDs which quickly go out of print. Since the s a considerable number of high quality CD productions of historical rebetiko [DM 1] have been released by various European and American labels.

The following select discography includes some of these historical anthologies, which are likely to be available in English speaking countries, plus a few Greek issues.

All are CDs unless otherwise noted. The emphasis on English-language releases in this discography is motivated both by their consistently high sound quality and by their inclusion, in many cases, of copious information in English, which tends to be lacking in Greek issues.

See however link section below for one Greek source of historic CDs with website and notes in English. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Greek music genre. For the film of the same name, see Rembetiko film. This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Sie sind nicht verpflichtet, eine Einwilligung zu erteilen und Sie können die Dienste der Website auch nutzen, wenn Sie Ihre Einwilligung nicht erteilen oder widerrufen.

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